Via People Matters : Here’s how augmented talent management will change HR
The era of new age HR is going to be defined by AI. Companies that aim to be relevant in the future will need to identify ways of augmenting their processes with AI technology.
A report by EY highlights the three components that drive AI – “high speed computation, a huge amount of quality data and advanced algorithms.” By leveraging these components, HR processes will need to become more personalized and experiential.
In addition to navigating evolving candidate/employee expectations, HR teams must help decipher and prepare for how such advances will affect the workforce, beyond chat bots in contact centres and using AI data for promotions.
With automation freeing up more time, and data analysis informing better decision-making, HR professionals can dive deeper into critical talent management areas, including:
With AI, input can be automated and performance scoring can be standardized, which is a welcome change for a periodic task oftentimes crowbarred into an already-full workload. As the bulk of the report is generated automatically, managers can focus on empathizing and connecting with employees to better uncover opportunities for improvement.
By alerting you to workers who are a flight risk, AI functionality can save you time in proactively assessing employee engagement and potential. HR professionals can instead devote more personal attention to engaging and thus, saving rock-star employees.
Similar to movie and product tips by Netflix or Amazon, respectively, both employees and prospects can be sent “good fit” job recommendations. And “candidate-to-candidate” matching can inform you of the applicants most closely resembling top performers. As AI automation nurtures your wider talent pool, you’ll be able to immerse yourself in seeking out highly desired passive candidates whose hiring would be a boon for your company.
With a complete view of employee performance and core HR data, AI functionality can determine which path for advancement is right for certain employees. You can spend freed-up time matching young professionals with in-house mentors based on personality, work style, and other criteria best determined by your own judgement.
With a wide data set that could encompass financial and supply chain data, AI-generated forecasts for future staffing needs can allow you to plan staffing accordingly and get ahead of the fiscal year-planning curve with upper management.
HR professionals should explore AI’s immense potential—and ample use cases. With this exciting new technology, teams can shift from maintenance and the mundane to the meaningful and strategic.
Via Human Resources : 7 talent management trends that HR must keep pace with
Among the various learning points derived from the on-site conversations among HR leaders at Talent Management Asia 2019, Malaysia, Jerene Ang sums up seven of them here.
Having hosted Talent Management Asia 2019, the region’s leading human capital strategy conference, for seven years; this year, the Human Resources project team, led by Heather Ang, decided it was time to breathe new life into the event.
This year, the Malaysia edition of the conference was held at New World Petaling Jaya Hotel on 26 to 27 March 2019. The two-day conference was attended by more than 150 people, and saw over 30 speakers taking the stage to share trends and best practices.
For an enhanced learning experience, various engaging and innovative session formats were introduced, such as the 20-20 Case Study, Knowledge Café, Fishbowl Panel, Solution Room and Fireside Chat. A fun game of HR Bingo was also weaved into the programme to bring up the atmosphere.
To facilitate context-relevant learning, and high interactivity, delegates had access to three breakout streams: Leading Strategic Talent Management, Riding the Digital Wave, and SMEs – Time to Sink or Swim.
After starting with a few plenary sessions in the morning of day one, delegates then split into the streams, where they remained for the second half of day one and first half of day two before grouping back together for the closing plenary sessions on day 2.
Among the innumerable nuggets of learning derived from the on-site conversations, we summed up our top seven below:
#1 EX = CX = ROI
Your employee experience is your customer experience. If your employee experience is there, your customer experience will fall in place.
To get the employee experience right, you have to know what your employees want. In general, employees want 4Es – they want to be empowered, enabled, have experiential opportunities, and to be engaged. But in order to have these 4Es, you have to have the 4Rs – you have to give them a real job, real opportunity, real experience, and real stories.
When creating a good employee experience, start with a high trust culture. If you don’t already have one, find out why and address the problem. If you already have a high trust culture, make sure it aligns to your company values, then sustain the experience. If your culture is not aligned to the company values, you have to make sure leaders start living the company culture from the top.
In the process, one of the challenges you may face is convincing the top management that allowing flexibility is the way to go. To do so, you need to start with a pilot. The management have been running the company for many years, so you can’t just throw out all the old practices at one go. You also need to engage the right people and get them to be your advocates.
#2 Culture or/and strategy?
Culture or strategy? It’s culture and strategy. Both are important. In surveys we ask which one has a greater impact on business? 96% of CEOs say Culture, but when we ask what they spend their time on, 74% spend their on Strategy, while only 26% spend time on Culture. Why does that happen?
Because strategy is what they learn. Nobody teaches you how to shape and build your culture in MBA courses. Everyone needs to understand what the culture of the organisation is.
And when it comes to transforming organisational culture, the reason is all about the top three or four key results that you want to achieve differently, for example, customer experience. There have to be very specific reasons behind it.
#3 Design principles for LMS 2.0
The learning management system of tomorrow would be designed with the following principles in mind:
- Capability cannot be built adhoc, it has to be continuous. The learning starts when an employee joins, and stops only when they leave.
- Learning cannot be course based. It has to be based on skills and competencies needed to do the job better.
- Short and bite-sized learning to suit today’s workplace demands.
- Learning must be done in the flow of work. Employees are saying, ‘give me learning when I’m sitting beside the customer so I can answer their questions better’.
- Personalised learning. The journey should be fully blended. Some should be classroom based, some online based and some micro learning.
#4 Preparing leaders for the future
In today’s world where technology disruption is happening faster than ever before, the question for HR now is: Are we preparing for the new jobs?
Research have shown that 10 years from now, 40% of the world’s leading companies today will not exist in any meaningful form. Learning from past experiences of companies like Nokia and Kodak, in HR, it’s not enough to not do anything wrong – not doing anything wrong just means a slower path to extinction.
With the rapid advancement of technology and AI, in the future, the cognitive aspects of the work will be taken over. It is the emotional aspects that cannot be taken over yet.
Hence, as HR, it is imperative to focus on the essential skills first – the soft skills, things like persuasion, negotiation, emotional intelligence, leadership, and resilience.
In such an environment, there is also a need to rethink what business is about and how to ensure society benefits from the fourth industrial revolution. As things are changing, we have to evolve, and we have to change fast, but some things must stay true. In such an environment, the leader needs to play the anchor – they must stay true to their purpose and values.
#5 Ensuring gender parity in boardrooms
When it comes to gender parity in the boardrooms, organisations have the key responsibility to start it at the management. But it doesn’t only need to be in the organisation. It also needs to be at the policy level in the government and in the society level.
On the individual level, both genders have a part to play.
Women need to speak up and own the space. Visibility and confidence should be women’s best friends.
Men have to play a part too. In fact, it starts with the men – how much encouragement and support do men give their partners? Because, without the support from men, women will continue to face pressure at work and at home.
#6 How to manage a multi-generational workforce
When managing a multi-generational workforce, conflict may arise – especially in cases raised where the younger generation’s hunger for career progression, conflicts with older employees who are uncomfortable reporting to someone younger.
In such a scenario, it is essential for HR to consider why the younger employee has been promoted to a higher position. If they are promoted based on merit, then it is easy to justify and mitigate the problem.
However, if they are promoted for the sake of giving them the progression they want, then it’s time to rethink the definition of ‘career progression’.
While career progression is usually defined as moving up the career ladder, we have to remember that since the ladder is no longer relevant – it’s more of a jungle gym now – lateral moves are also considered progression.
This mindset change needs to happen especially since three generations are already in the workforce with a fourth about to enter.
#7 Ensuring successful culture change
You’ve probably heard the saying “people leave managers, not companies.” But that’s only part of the problem. In a good company, bad managers make a difference; however, in bad companies, good or bad managers do not make a difference to an employee’s decision to leave.
Hence, it is more important to focus on the organisation culture and behaviours. The change needs to start from the top as the behaviour of leaders will help shape the culture.
However, you can’t just put the culture there and expect people to follow it. You also have to share the strategy behind it and how it can help the business, as well as tell the individuals what is in it for them.
Culture change has to start in small steps, with the key success factor being engagement. The more you engage, the better the results.
Via Search HR Software : Talent acquisition trends adapt to the cloud-enabled workforce
As the workforce evolves, companies are experimenting with new models to find and engage talent while leveraging the cloud and the app economy.
The rise of the app economy is bringing about new models to match consumers and resources, while the gig economy is providing new modes of employment for a mobile and flexible workforce.
Matchmaking services like Airbnb use the power of mobile applications to connect travelers and property owners, and platforms like Uber and Lyft are creating job opportunities for thousands. These trends are meeting in the middle in the world of HR, according to experts, as talent acquisition trends evolve to embrace a technology-enabled workforce.
The emerging workforce model can be thought of as a people cloud that brings the same agility to trends in talent acquisition as the cloud brought to IT services, said Matthew Mottola, project manager for the future of work and on-demand talent platforms at Microsoft, in a session at the recent Work Rebooted conference in San Francisco.
In this model, departments throughout a company are more empowered to bring in the right talent for a specific project with less overhead with the traditional talent hiring process. Similar to the way SaaS applications made it easy for managers to circumvent IT to get work done, the availability of on-demand talent could enable departments to easily organize staff for specific, project-based work.
Of course, readily available cloud apps also led to complications for CIOs in the form of shadow IT. With the people cloud, chief human resources officers will need to figure out how to put safeguards in place or risk getting sidelined by departmental managers, said Steve Ardire, an AI startup advisor, in an interview. He believes the people cloud could present a political challenge for many organizations because it could also erode the traditional role of HR.
Despite the potential challenges, the concept of the people cloud reflects the changing nature of employment and the evolution of talent acquisition trends, while also offering benefits for employers and workers alike.
Sourcing talent with technology
Temp services have been around for some time, traditionally acting as an employer managing all the governance, risk and compliance requirements of the hiring process. Newer services are emerging that operate more like Uber, matching highly skilled independent contractors with opportunities.
For example, Alp Sezginsoy, founder and CEO of Expertera, launched his own service after researching Airbnb as part of his job as a merchant banker.
“This made me realize there was a big shift happening and it would take place in the way knowledge was shared in the workforce, as well,” he said in a panel at Work Rebooted.
Sezginsoy began building a database of expertise that eventually evolved into a full-fledged matchmaking service for senior executive talent in Europe. He expects that many European companies will build out 30% of their workforce using the trend toward on-demand talent acquisition. He believes that the matchmaking process will evolve from a process based on keyword searches to a system using AI the way that Netflix matches user movie history with new suggestions.
Sezginsoy also emphasized the freelancer mentality that workers may need to adopt as they attempt to keep up with the change of pace that AI is bringing to the workforce. Work as an investment banker was repetitive, said Sezginsoy, but in his current role, he has the opportunity to improve himself constantly.
“A freelancer needs to update themselves continuously since they are working on task-based jobs,” he said. “You are exposed to many opportunities, so you learn a lot.”
Microsoft’s Mottola knows about the value of freelance experience firsthand. He spent his life in freelance as a freelancer and an entrepreneur building freelance platforms and is now helping organizations launch and scale programs with the Microsoft 365 freelance toolkit. He was initially skeptical of large companies like Microsoft, but realized they could provide freelancers with the scale of an enterprise and the speed of a startup.
“For Microsoft to get me into the building and spend money on me was crazy hard,” he said.
Challenges start with getting in the door, but they are also prevalent in granting appropriate IT access and setting up productive collaboration patterns between freelancers and the rest of the organization. Part of Mottola’s work at Microsoft lies in creating better systems to overcome these barriers. He’s also tasked with ensuring that freelancers are only working on the projects they want to work on.
“There is a crazy concept in larger companies where you get assigned to a project you did not choose,” he said.
Other benefits of nontraditional talent
Embracing a freelance mentality can also help companies advance technologically. Freelancers can be more motivated to find ways to improve their ability to solve different classes of problems using new tools when they are compensated on a per project basis.
“If the incentives are aligned and I am doing a fixed cost project, I want the best way to augment myself and I am going to find the tools to do it better myself,” Mottola said.
Eventually, companies may start to explore new compensation models that stem from emerging trends in talent acquisition, directly matching worker interests and project results. Aligning freelancer interests with business results rather than just project completion could benefit companies and temporary staff alike, said Sean Ring, co-founder and chief revenue officer at Fulcrum, a talent management platform.
Changing trends in talent acquisition for freelancers may also soon extend to small groups. The current model matches individuals with projects or tasks. But often, a small coherent team can bring greater efficiency and faster results without the pains of onboarding. New projects can take significant time and effort to establish a good cadence of communication and organizational structure, a scenario that could be avoided by hiring an entire team.
According to Parminder K. Jassal, group director for the Work + Learn Futures program at the Institute for the Future, “I think we are going toward a future where teams stick together on the outside and then move from company to company for specific opportunities.”
Via G2Crowd : What Is Talent Management? (+Why You Need It for Your HR Strategy)
Talent management isn’t just another industry buzzword the big shots in Silicon Valley are throwing around — it’s the missing piece of your HR puzzle.
The job market is more competitive than ever, which means your job as an HR professional needs to evolve in order to keep up with the latest HR trends – and a great talent management strategy could be what helps you edge out the competition.
What is talent management and why is it important?
The concept of talent management is pretty new in the corporate world, and as such, there are still people who aren’t familiar with the concept. So, what is talent management?
Talent management definition
Talent management is a human resources strategy that refers to how a company acquires and manages employees or talent. It specifically focuses on improving certain HR processes with the end goal of improving the employee experience and increasing the value of a business.
A comprehensive talent management strategy is critical for any company that wants to attract and keep the best employees. In order to create a successful talent management program, you need to shake off the old idea that talent management and human resources are two separate functions.
How do talent management and HR work together?
The traditional way of thinking that talent management and HR should be two separate functions is quickly becoming a thing of the past. Instead, you should think of HR as the umbrella that covers all the different facets of human resources management.
These four main functions of human resources all come together to form a cohesive human resources strategy. Let’s take a quick look at what daily job functions fall under each of these categories:
- Planning and organizing company programs
- Directing employees toward the shared company goal
- Policy formulation and implementation
- Payroll and benefits
- PTO and vacation tracking
- Legal functionalities
- Resolving employee conflicts
- Risk management
- Talent acquisition
- Employee relations
- Performance management
We’ll spend time in this article looking specifically at talent management and how it folds into the larger HR management strategy. Let’s take a closer look into some of the specific aspects of talent management:
The first step in creating a holistic approach to talent management is to examine how you’re acquiring and managing your talent. This is a process every company has in place but that many could improve upon.
Interviewing and recruiting
Nothing is more frustrating for a potential employee than to have their interviewing process slowed down by outdated technology and processes. Do you know how long it’s been since your company reviewed its interviewing and recruiting process?
If not, you should take a deep dive into how you’re attempting to attract top talent. You may even consider brushing up on some of the latest hiring recruitment strategies.
If you feel like your recruiting pipeline leaves a little to be desired in the way of technology, you might consider investing in an applicant tracking system software (ATS).
Training and onboarding
Your job isn’t done once you hire top talent – you also need to make sure they get the best training they can. If you haven’t looked at your onboarding strategy in the last couple of years, there’s a chance you’re putting new employees through a boring, outdated process.
Figuring out the best ways to improve your employee onboarding process and creating an onboarding checklist will help create a more enjoyable experience.
Employee relations refers to the efforts your company takes to build and maintain the relationships between employees and their employer. There are several sub-topics that fall under the umbrella of employee relations.
It’s a hot topic in the workforce these days, but what exactly is company culture? Think of company culture as the personality of your company. You wouldn’t want to hang out with someone with a bad personality, and employees don’t want to work for a company with a bad company culture.
The tricky thing about company culture is that it can be difficult to pin down. The good news is that you have the best resource for discovering what your company culture is (and how you can improve it) right at your fingertips – your employees.
You can use your regular meetings with employees to talk about things like your company culture. Consider using stay-interviews, one-on-ones with managers, or even employee engagement software to figure out exactly how employees feel about your company.
The term employee engagement refers to how invested your employees are in your company. Employee engagement is vital to your talent management strategy because unengaged employees are some of the most difficult to work with.
Don’t blame your employees if they’re unengaged – use it as an opportunity to make a positive change. The only mistake you can make is ignoring the signs your employees are giving you and continuing to carry on business as usual when they’ve expressed that it’s not working for them.
If you’re unsure what your employee engagement situation looks like, you may consider administering an employee satisfaction survey to allow your employees the chance to freely express what they like about the company and what can be improved.
If you are seeing a rise in the number of employees leaving your company after a short period of time, you may have a problem with employee turnover that stems directly from your employee relations strategy.
You should also keep a close eye on the trends surrounding employees that leave. Were they all working for the same manager? Or maybe they all came from the same department? If you pay close attention, the problem may reveal itself without much extra work needed.
It can seem alarming to watch employees leaving your company faster than you can hire them but this is another golden opportunity to fix what’s broken in your talent management strategy. If you’re not already, start conducting exit-interviews with employees and ask them why they are leaving for another opportunity.
As larger numbers of employees seek out jobs that help them hone their leadership skills, it’s important that you help facilitate their growth. It’s unreasonable to expect an employee to stay stagnant while your company grows and flourishes – that’s why offering a clear path for growth is important to talent management.
It’s important to keep in mind that your entire workforce won’t be made of top performers off the bat. You’re likely to have a few employees who struggle in their position. A big part of talent management is learning how to help those employees improve the same way you encourage your top performers. Using a performance improvement plan can help struggling employees improve and grow.
Put the management back into talent management
Talent management isn’t something you can do half-heartedly. It takes strategy, planning, and close monitoring in order to be successful in improving the employee experience. It may seem overwhelming at first, but once you get a handle on implementing talent management into your HR strategy, you’ll be shocked how it improves your office environment.
Via HR Morning : Keys to effective succession planning: Talent management special report
Are changes in your market forcing a change in strategy that will demand new talent?
Have one or more of your long-time stars started thinking about moving to a competitor or retiring?
Or are you just trying to make sure the wheels keep turning for a few weeks or months if one of your top people gets sick or dies unexpectedly?
Succession planning is a talent management must-do for organizations of all sizes, whether a global corporation, a small non-profit, a mid-sized college or a family business with a dozen employees.
Long-term success depends on creating a plan for how you’ll keep your team moving forward when you lose a key player or encounter a skills gap that must be filled quickly.
It brings focus to the process of identifying top performers, employees with strong potential and the people that you need to push hard or push out.
For employees, the succession planning process translates into stretch opportunities that can help them learn new skills, advance their careers, increase their value to the team and boost earning power. All of those positives can translate into an increased commitment to your organization.
What are you planning for?
It’s important to differentiate succession planning from other strategic staffing plans, says William J. Rothwell in a Dale Carnegie white paper entitled The Nuts and Bolts of Succession Planning.
What it’s not is replacement planning, Rothwell says. That’s the process of identifying individuals within an organization, and often in the same division or department, who would be best-equipped to serve as backups for current employees.
While replacement planning is an important part of an organization’s overall operating strategy, succession planning takes a much broader viewpoint – it encompasses the total operation, rather than individual positions, departments or divisions.
As Robert E. Lewis and Robert J. Heckman put it in their oft-cited paper, Talent management: A critical review:
Consider the following question, If you were to begin the process of constructing a building how would you go about it? Would you assemble a group of the best professionals in each necessary craft (plumbing, electrical systems, carpentry, etc.) and let them define your building? Or, would you start with an analysis of the relationship between “construction practices” and some outcome you hope to achieve (building longevity or cost of operation)? Probably not. You probably would first meet with an architect to begin drawing a blueprint after considering a series of key questions such as, what do you hope to accomplish with this building? Will those goals appeal to the intended customers (tenants or shoppers)? What alternatives for orienting the building on its site best accomplish its purpose?
It is always important to be clear about the end-goal of any strategic planning effort and succession planning is no different.
The first thing to do is figure out your plan’s target and scope. To be effective, the succession planning process should be:
Formal. While a succession planning process needs to match an organization’s overall culture, whether buttoned down and hierarchical or more casual and egalitarian, everyone involved needs to understand that this is a well-defined process with support from top leadership and mission-critical outcomes at stake.
Comprehensive. It’s tempting to think of succession planning as applying only to senior leadership roles, but an effective plan will look at critical positions and people at every level of the organization.
Strategically Linked. Every aspect of your succession plan needs to support the organization’s overall strategy. That is the guiding star that will help to define the kinds of people and types of training you need to put in place as you build a talent pipeline to the future.
Linking Succession Planning to Your Strategic Plan
A paint-by-numbers succession planning effort is doomed to give you an uninspired and amateurish result. Only by matching your succession planning to your organization’s guiding strategy can you confidently identify the positions, skills and employees needed to succeed.
Whatever your organization’s size and your target, a succession plan should focus on four specific outcomes:
- Identify mission-critical positions and any current or impending talent gaps – based on the strategic opportunities you identify and how you create competitive advantage. Which jobs and skills are must-haves? Do those positions already exist or do we need to create them?
- Identify employees at every level who have the potential to assume greater responsibility advancing your organization’s strategic goals and how they fit together – what combination of A, B and C performers do we need and how do we attract and keep them?
- Encourage meaningful investment in a training and development program for high-potential employees – be ready to defend allocating resources to a given talent pool(s) or to talent in
general rather than technology, marketing or other investments.
- What is the process for revisiting and revising your succession plan as conditions change?
With those factors in mind, how do you go about building and refining a succession plan? Here’s some help.
Building a team
You’ve committed to building a succession plan, now its time to think about who you need on the team who will do the work. You need to decide who will design the plan and also determine who will be responsible for implementing and evolving your plan when it’s in place.
You’ll want to include people with different skills and from a variety of functions when assembling the succession planning team.
Of course, in smaller organizations, team members are going to wear multiple hats.
Some of the needed skills include:
Organization and process-orientation. While the succession planning effort itself needs to focus on goals, you’ll want someone on the team who will keep things moving along during the plan development phase.
That person needs to have enough authority to give other members assignments and to get answers from various departments.
Organizational knowledge. The team needs to include someone with a solid handle on most of the organization’s existing job descriptions and insight into any new positions that might be needed to accomplish the goals you’ve set.
And at least one member of the team should have connections throughout the organization and know who they can approach to build support for the succession planning effort.
Effective communication. Like many other strategic initiatives, the information gathering phase of succession planning can create nervousness and give rise to rumors about job changes (often true) or massive job losses (often false).
Keeping the rest of your organization working productively while this is going on requires skillful communication to share enough information to keep a lid on any panic-button pushers.
If handled well, giving employees insight into the process can help reassure them that company leaders are preparing the organization for the long haul.
Identifying strengths and weaknesses
So, you’ve committed to building a succession plan and picked your team. What’s their next step?
It’s time to brainstorm. What are all the internal and external factors that your plan needs to account for? Here are some questions to consider:
- Organizations face increasingly rapid changes in macroeconomic, industry and social trends — which ones can you anticipate and prepare for?
- Competition can come from anywhere in the world. How will you keep an eye on — and respond to — new challenges?
- Does your team have all the skills you’ll need? Can training fill the gaps or will you need to hire?
- Boomers are retiring and the generational mix of your workforce will look very different soon. What do demographic changes mean for your organization?
- The research is clear: companies with a diverse workforce outperform the competition. How will you leverage succession planning to increase diversity in your line organization and leadership team?
- Do you need to change your org structure and talent management processes to match these challenges?
Build or Buy? Finding the right people
The first phase of this part of the process is to identify key/critical positions, ideally at every level of the organization. A position is determined to be key or critical under the following criteria:
- Organizational structure — The position is a key contributor in achieving the organization’s mission
- Key task — The position performs a critical task that would stop or hinder vital functions from being performed if it were left vacant
- Specialized competencies — The position requires a specialized or unique skill set that is difficult to replace
- Geography — The position is the only one of its kind in a particular location or it would be difficult for a similar position in another location to carry out its functions remotely,
- Potential high turnover job classes — Positions in danger of “knowledge drain” due to impending retirements or high market demand for the skill set, and
- Future needs — based on the SWOT analysis that launched the succession management project, positions that need to be created and defined.
Once critical positions and areas at risk of high turnover are identified, it’s time to look at the specific competencies required to do those jobs effectively.
The questions you need to ask during the skill set analysis are closely related to the strategic questions your team addressed in the first part of this process:
- What are the external and internal factors affecting this specific position?
- How will the position be used in the future?
- What competencies or skillsets will be required?
- What is the current bench strength?
- How will you provide stretch opportunities to high-potential employees?
- What is the path from where they are to where you need them to be? and
- What are the gaps (competencies or skillsets not possessed by current employees)?
At the end of this analysis you will have the answer to the most important succession planning question: “Can we develop our existing pool of internal candidates quickly enough or must we ramp up our search for strong outside candidates?”
The good news is you now have a clear idea of what you have and what you are still looking for and can move on to the next steps in the process, which we look at in other reports in our HR Morning talent management series:
- designing the right training programs for each talent pool based on strategic importance, available resources and growth path
- refining your recruiting plan to maximize your chances to get the most from your recruiting efforts, to use your time and energy wisely and effectively, and to pursue only the most likely paths to recruiting success and
- retaining key personnel.